Lupus Pneumonitis Masquerading as Pulmonary Tuberculosis - A | 46372

गठिया का जर्नल

ISSN - 2167-7921


Lupus Pneumonitis Masquerading as Pulmonary Tuberculosis - A Case Study

Prasanta Kumar Bhattacharya*, Aakash Roy, Md Jamil, Monaliza Lyngdoh and Kishore Kumar Talukdar

Introduction: Systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by production of antibodies against various cellular antigens derived from nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane. Pulmonary manifestations of SLE can include a wide spectrum of diseases such as pleuritis, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax and pulmonary haemorrhage. Acute lupus pneumonitis may mimic tuberculosis or other acute infectious pneumonia and the incidence varies from 0.9% to 11.7%. We report a case of lupus pneumonitis in a case of SLE mimicking pulmonary tuberculosis.

Case: An 18 year old girl presented with history cough with expectoration with occasional haemoptysis. She also had history of fever, swelling of hands and feet along with hair loss. On examination she was febrile and dyspneic, with moderate to severe anaemia, tachycardia, tachypnoea, and coarse crepitations over the chest. Sputum for acid fast bacilli, bacterial culture and fungal stains were negative. She was initially treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and then empirically with anti-tubercular therapy (ATT). However, as she failed to respond to ATT, further evaluation was done. Anti-nuclear antibodies and ds DNA were strongly positive. Urine analysis showed nephrotic range proteinuria. High resolution computed tomogram of the chest showed bilateral ground glassing suggestive of lupus pneumonitis (LP). A diagnosis of SLE with LP was made and the patient was put on corticosteroids which led to a dramatic response.

Conclusion: SLE has a wide facade of presentations. Keeping this in mind, even in countries where tuberculosis is endemic, the differential diagnosis of SLE and LP should always be considered even where the clinical features and chest X-rays findings are suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis.